OP321 – Fundamentals of Voltage and Frequency Control

OP321 – Fundamentals of Voltage and Frequency Control

2 days - 14 PDH Credits Awarded



This Course covers the importance of voltage and frequency in the bulk power system. In order to respond to rapid, unexpected system voltage deviations, we need to carry sufficient reactive reserves to better respond to unannounced voltage fluctuations. In addition to these changing voltages, power system frequency varies due to the constantly changing load. This course is designed to present the day-to-day, hour-to-hour, minute-to-minute changes in system load that result in voltage and frequency deviations from the “scheduled” voltage and frequency. Operations personnel, electrical supervisors and engineers should attend the Voltage and Frequency course. A topical outline includes:  Active / Reactive Power, Voltage Deviation & Schedules, Causes and Effect of High/Low Voltage, Voltage Control Equipment, Reactive Capability of Generators, Energy Balance, Governor Control Systems, and Automatic Generation Control. FYI, this class runs Thursday thru Friday.  On Monday thru Wednesday of the same week there is another interesting course scheduled, “Protective Relays for Operators”, OP316.  Attend both classes and HPC will provide a discount on the total fee.


At the completion of this course the participant will be able to:
  1. Define true power and Reactive Power and the relationship between Reactive and Power and Voltage Control.
  2. Define voltage deviations.
  3. Discuss the causes and effects of high and low voltages.
  4. Discuss voltage control equipment available and the role of the power system operator in the control of voltage.
  5. Discuss the reactive capability of synchronous generators.
  6. Explain the need to match generation to load and describe how the load/frequency relationship and system inertia contribute to frequency control.
  7. Explain the principle of governor action and the contribution of generating unit governors to generation control.
  8. Explain how the automatic generation control (AGC) system regulates frequency and controls interchange.

Course Dates / Location / Fee

See www.hpcnet.com for detail on the course dates / locations / and registration fees. HPC’s 3-4-2 policy applies:  Sign up 3 for the same course/date, pay in advance, and pay for only 2 (the 3rd participant is free)! HPC Technical Services reserves the right to cancel any course/seminar within 10-working days of the scheduled date.  Fees are 100% refunded or credited to another Seminar (clients' choice) if HPC should cancel any Seminar.  HPC is not responsible for non-refundable airline tickets or other travel expenses under any circumstance.


All HPC instructors are educated ‘experts’ on the subjects they teach, with years of relevant hands-on experience (typically 20+ years), and have proven instructional skills. Brief resumes can be looked up on HPC’s website, www.hpcnet.com.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Will HPC Technical Services bring this course to our location for our personnel only? YES, call or email Stephen Parker, stparker@hpcnet.com for a price quotation.
  • Will HPC Technical Services customize the presentation at our site to suit our particular needs?
  • Is HPC Technical Services' textbook available for purchase as a reference document? Yes, $95.
  • What is the cost for HPC Technical Service to deliver this course at our location? Well, of course that can vary, but generally speaking, if you're planning on having 6+ attend, when considering your T&L, it is to your advantage to perform the course at your plant (office).  You gain from the customization and price.
  • Can HPC Technical Services provide "Technical Assistance" in conducting functional checkouts or troubleshooting problems? Yes we can.  Call or contact Harold Parker, hparker@hpcnet.com for our rate sheets and any further information required.

What you will receive

  1. 1 copy of HPC Technical Services' textbook, OP321 Fundamentals of Voltage &Frequency Controls
  2. A "Certificate of Completion"

Power Plant operator Certification

This course is one of the courses required for Power Plant Operator Certification. Those who attend this course are automatically qualified to take HPC Technical Services' Certification Examination.  This examination is offered at no additional expense to the participant.  An 80% passing grade is required.  The examination length will not exceed 2-hours.  Those who complete this examination will receive a revised "certificate of completion" that recognizes this accomplishment along with two-copies of a "To Whom It May Concern" letter that states their accomplishment.  (Two copies are provided, one for the participants' employer and one for the participants' personal file.)   Consult HPC's website, www.hpcnet.com, for detail on this certification program