G310 – Generators: Normal / Abnormal Operation

G310 – Generators: Normal / Abnormal Operation

2.5 days - 18 PDH Credits Awarded



There are NO SMALL PROBLEMS when it comes to your GENERATOR!!Learn how modern generators work on the power system grid.  Emphasis is placed on taking the magic out of generation operations as well as dealing with normal operations and those abnormal occurrences that could happen.  Attending personnel learn what really happens in the air gap.  An understanding of why and how the voltage / frequency varies is extremely important in being able to make the “best” operating decision.  The interesting part of operating a generator is that you do not know when this information is going to be needed, and when this understanding is required there will be no time to consult the book nor call the subject matter expert.  Learn what components are at risk and how.  At the course conclusion we will review 12+ abnormal conditions and for each we’ll discuss how the situation can develop, what are the symptoms, what protective relaying might exist, what are the proper actions, and if actions are not taken then what are the results.  Be prepared!  There are no small problems when it comes to your generator. Combustion Turbines, Diesels, Hydroelectric Turbines, or Steam Turbine Drives.  It makes no difference; we cover them all as it applies to safe and proper generator operation.  This course is intended for Control Room Operators, Shift Supervisors, Engineers, Technicians, and Operation Superintendents/Supervisors who operate these generating units. A topical outline includes: Generator Theory for Non-Engineers, System Operation, Generator Construction, Intro to Generator Controls, Generator Auxiliary Systems, Normal Operations, Abnormal Operations. Take a test now:
  1. Define a VAR.
  2. When opening the generator circuit breaker, under which conditions should the unit be in auto? And, under what conditions should the unit be in manual?  Why?
  3. Describe when motoring the generator a concern?
  4. What generator component is at risk if and when a negative sequence current event should occur? Why?
  5. Can a stator ground cause other damage on the generator?
How did you do?  With a little experience and this course you should have been able to answer each question in some degree of detail.

What you will receive

  1. 1 copy of HPC Technical Services' textbook, Generator: Normal/Abnormal Operations, a $149 value, as written by Harold Parker. This text contains a significant number of equipment photographs, graphics and data tables.  It is a valuable desktop reference in addition to being able to enhance the learning process.  (This valuable text is available for purchase if you cannot attend – US$149).
  2. A Certificate of Completion

Course Dates / Location / Fee

See www.TurbineGeneratorTraining.com for detail on the course dates / locations / and registration fees. HPC’s 3-4-2 policy applies:  Sign up 3 for the same course/date, pay in advance, and pay for only 2 (the 3rd participant is free)! HPC Technical Services reserves the right to cancel any course/seminar within 10-working days of the scheduled date.  Fees are 100% refunded or credited to another Seminar (clients' choice) if HPC should cancel any Seminar.  HPC is not responsible for non-refundable airline tickets or other travel expenses under any circumstance.


All HPC instructors are educated ‘experts’ on the subjects they teach, with years of relevant hands-on experience (typically 20+ years), and have proven instructional skills. Brief resumes can be looked up on HPC’s website, www.TurbineGeneratorTraining.com.


Upon completion of this course, participants will be able to:
  1. Describe, in layman terms, synchronism and the interaction of magnetic fields within the generator air gap.
  2. Describe how the North America grid is divided.
  3. Describe the terms VAR and WATT using a description of energy flow and current/voltage.
  4. Describe the proper procedure for preparing the generator for synchronous operation.
  5. Demonstrate the ability to use the reactive capability.
  6. Describe the various methods used to monitor generator temperatures.
  7. Describe the generator response to frequency and/or voltage deviations.
  8. List a minimum of 15 alarm conditions occurring on a generator where operator action may be required.
  9. For each alarm condition listed:
    1. Describe the likely results (damage) resulting from no proper response.
    2. Describe, in layman terms, the device providing the annunciation.
    3. State whether automatic protective relaying exists and describe any actions taken.
    4. Describe how an operator may validate alarm conditions.
    5. Describe the most correct action to be taken upon validation.

Course Outline

Day One

  • Course Introduction 
  • Generator Theory for Non-Engineers:  Fundamentals of Generator Design, Stator Armature Windings, Armature Reaction, Rotor Magnetic Fields, Generator Loads, Power Transfer and Load Angle, Active and Reactive Power, Power Factor, Power Flow, Generators Under Load
  • System Operation:  Structure of Power System, Interconnections, Power Balance, and Frequency/Voltage Control

Day Two

  • Construction: Stator Frame, Stator Core, Stator Windings, Coolers, End Shield, Rotor Assembly, Rotor Forging, Field Windings, Retaining Rings, Collector Rings, Exciters, Collectors
  • Introduction to Generator Controls:  Speed Governor Operation, Automatic Voltage Regulator, DC Excitation Systems, Rotating Exciters, Static Excitation Systems, Generator Rotor Angle, And Parallel Operation
  • Generator Auxiliary Systems Normal/Abnormal Operations:  Hydrogen Systems, Seal Oil Systems, and Stator Winding Cooling Systems.
  • Normal Operation: Preparation for startup, Synchronizing (Manual and Automatic considerations), Loading, Reactive Capability Curves, Vee Curves, Unloading, Monitoring Temperatures, Shutdown Methods.

Day Three (1/2 Day)

  • Abnormal Operations: Relationship Between Operation, Protection and Alarms, Alarms, Protection When Off-Line, Protective Actions for Generator Faults,
  • Abnormal Operation and Protection Recommendations that include System Steady and Dynamic Conditions, Frequency Deviations, Voltage Deviations, Instability, Loss of Synchronism, Stator Over Current, Stator Ground Fault, Stator Phase-to-Phase Fault, Over Voltage, Over Volts-Per-Hertz, Field Overheating, Field Ground, Loss of Excitation, Bearing Vibration, Synchronizing Errors, Motoring, Reduced Seal Oil Pressure, Loss of Stator Coolant, High Water Conductivity, Local Overheating, Unbalanced Armature Currents, Breaker Failure, System Back Up, Voltage Surges, Transmission Line Planned Switching, High Speed Reclosing, Accidental Energization
  • Course Conclusion & Exam (if applicable)

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Will HPC Technical Services bring this course to our location for our personnel only? YES, call or email Stephen Parker, Stephen@TurbineGeneratorTraining.com for a price quotation.
  • Will HPC Technical Services customize the presentation at our site to suit our particular needs?
  • Is HPC Technical Services' textbook available for purchase as a reference document?   $149 + S&H.
  • What is the cost for HPC Technical Service to deliver this course at our location? Well, of course that can vary, but generally speaking, if you're planning on having 6+ attend, when considering your T&L, it is to your advantage to perform the course at your plant (office).  You gain from the customization and price.
  • Is this course available for e-Training? Getting close.  Lecture one is currently available for on-line study and is recommended even if the stand-up lecture course is taken (since time is not a variable in e-Training).  Remaining chapters are currently under development.
  • Can HPC Technical Services provide troubleshooting "Technical Assistance" should the need occur? Yes we can.  Call or contact Stephen Parker, Stephen@TurbineGeneratorTraining.com for our rate sheets and any further information required.

Generator Operator Certification

Those who attend this course are automatically qualified to take HPC Technical Services' Certification Examination.  This examination is offered at no additional expense to the participant.  An 80% passing grade is required.  The examination length will not exceed 2-hours.  Those who complete this examination will receive a revised "certificate of completion" that recognizes this accomplishment along with two-copies of a "To Whom It May Concern" letter that states their accomplishment.  (Two copies are provided, one for the participants' employer and one for the participants' personal file.) Consult HPC's website, www.TurbineGeneratorTraining.com, for detail on this certification program.

Client List

A/C Power, AES Corporation, Air Products & Chemicals, Allegheny Power, Ameren UE, American Electric Power, American Ref-Fuel, Anchorage Municipal Power & Light, Arizona Public Service, Atlantic Power, Baltimore Gas & Electric, Boulder (CO) City of, Brighton Beach Power, Bryan Municipal Light, Cardinal Power of Canada, Cedar Falls Municipality, Central SW Power, Cogentrix, Columbian Chemicals Corp, Constellation Energy, Consumers Energy, Denver Water Dept., Dominion Resources, DTE Energy, Duquesne Light, Dynegy NE, Edison Mission, Entergy Operations, Environment One, Exelon Corp, First Energy, Fort Drum Cogen, Foster Wheeler, Franklin Heating Center, GE Contractual Services, GE Global O&M, GPU/Genco, Great River Energy, Gulf States Power, Hawaiian Electric, Hovensa Oil Refinery, Indian River (FL Sheriff’s Dept, Indianapolis P&L, Kennecott Utah Copper, Kentucky Utilities, Kinder Morgan, LG&E Power, MidAmerican Energy, Mirant Corporation, New England Power, Northland Power, NRG, Nuclear Service Organization, Ohio Valley Electric Coop, Olmstead W-to-E, Ontario Power Generation, Owensboro Municipal Utilities, PECO, PG&E, Progress Energy, PS of New Mexico, Rochester Public Utilities, Rockford (NY) Village of, Sacramento Municipal Utility Div., San Diego G&E, San Miguel Electric Coop, SaskPower, Siemens Westinghouse Power, Sitka (AK) Burough of, Smurfit Stone, Stewart & Stevenson Operations, TVA, United Power Assn, TransAlta Utilities, United Power Associates, US Army Corps of Engineers, US Generating, Washington Water Power, Wellco Services, West Penn Power, West Plains Energy, Wheelabrator Energy Systems, Worley Parsons, and Xcel Energy